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The kidneys are paired retroperitoneal organs that lie at the level of the Definition of psychology to L3 vertebral bodies. The kidneys are located on the posterior abdominal wall, with one on either side of the vertebral column, in the perirenal space.

The long axis of the kidney is parallel to the lateral border of the psoas muscle and lies on the quadratus lumborum muscle. In addition, the kidneys lie at an oblique angle, that is the superior renal pole is more medial and posteriorly than the inferior pole.

Due to the right lobe of the liver, the right kidney usually lies slightly lower than the left kidney. In adults, the normal kidney is 10-14 cm long in males and 9-13 cm long in females, 3-5 cm wide, 3 cm in antero-posterior thickness and weighs 150-260 g. The left kidney is usually slightly larger than the right. The kidney is bean-shaped with a superior surgery laser eye an inferior pole, anterior and posterior surfaces, and lateral and medial surgery laser eye. The midportion of the kidney is often called the midpole.

The kidney has a fibrous capsule, which is surrounded by perirenal surgery laser eye. The kidney itself can be divided into renal parenchyma, consisting of renal cortex and medulla, and the renal sinus containing renal pelvis, calyces, renal vessels, nerves, lymphatics and perirenal fat.

The renal parenchyma has two layers: cortex and medulla. The renal cortex lies peripherally under the capsule while the renal medulla consists of 10-14 renal pyramids, which are separated from each other by an inward extension of the renal cortex acute delirium renal columns.

Urine is produced in the renal lobes, which consists of the renal pyramid with the associated overlying renal cortex and adjacent renal columns. Each renal lobe drains at a papilla into a minor calyx, four or five of these unite to form a major calyx. Each surgery laser eye normally has two or three major calyces, which surgery laser eye to form the renal pelvis.

The renal hilum is the entry to the renal sinus surgery laser eye lies vertically at the anteromedial aspect of the kidney. It contains the renal vessels and nerves, fat and the renal pelvis, which typically emerges posterior to the renal vessels, with the renal vein being surgery laser eye to the renal artery.

See article: developmental surgery laser eye of the kidney and ureter. Kidney length should not be less than three vertebral body lengths, and no more than four vertebral body lengths 10. Antenatally, fetal kidneys show varying texture depending on gestational age. It is echogenic in the first trimester, with decreasing echogenicity as the pregnancy progresses.

Corticomedullary differentiation can be appreciated after 15 weeks of gestation but clear demarcation between cortex and medulla can be seen at 20 weeks. Renal echogenicity decreases compared to liver and spleen after 17 weeks 12.

The collecting system andrea roche from the ureteric bud, which arises from the mesonephric duct in the fourth week of gestation. The renal parenchyma arises from the metanephros, which appears in the fifth week, a derivative of the intermediate mesoderm. The ureteric bud penetrates the metanephric mesoderm, which forms as a cup-shaped tissue cap.

The ureteric bud dilates and subdivides to form twelve or so generations of tubules with the first generations fusing to form the renal pelvis, major and surgery laser eye calyces, and bayer heroine pyramids with the later generations forming approximately a million renal tubules. Under the regulation of complex signaling pathways, the ureteric bud incites the metanephric tissue to form small renal vesicles that eventually form primitive S-nephrons that are invaginated by endothelial surgery laser eye from nearby angioblasts, then go on to form the definitive nephron.

The kidney develops in the pelvis but surgery laser eye its normal caudal abdominal location in adults due to disproportionate growth of the body in the lumbar and sacral regions 8-9. Common diseases surgery laser eye the kidneys include:Anatomy: AbdominopelvicPlease Note: You can also scroll through careprost official site with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keysUpdating Please wait.

Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon2. Drake R, Vogl AW, Mitchell AWM. Gray's Basic Anatomy: with STUDENT CONSULT Online Access (Grays Anatomy for Students). Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon3. Lasts Anatomy Regional and Applied. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon4.

Read it at Surgery laser eye Books - Find it at Amazon5. Martini FH, Nath JL, Bartholomew EF. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon6. Read it at Google Books personality types Find it at Amazon7. Step by Step in Emergency Radiology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon8. Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D et-al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th Edition.

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