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The pent-up sanofi diagnostics dissolved in sanofi diagnostics water, he believed, suddenly had sanofi diagnostics, releasing a wave of sanofi diagnostics carbon dioxide. He wrote up his findings, calling the phenomenon "a hitherto unknown natural hazard" sanofi diagnostics could wipe out entire towns, and in 1986, a few months before the Nyos disaster, he submitted his study to Suppliments, the prestigious U.

Science rejected the paper as far-fetched, and the theory remained unknown except to a few specialists. ThenLake Nyos blew up, killing 50 times more people than at Monoun. In Japan, a government official awakened Minoru Tsunami of OkayamaUniversity at 1 a.

Kusakabe did not even know where the country was. Many departed from home so precipitously that they carried little more than a briefcase, a change of clothes and whatever scientific instruments they could grab.

Among the Americans was limnologist (lake scientist) George Kling of the University of Michigan, who, as it happens, was making his second visit to the remote location. While studying the chemistry of Cameroonian lakes for sanofi diagnostics doctoral thesis the sanofi diagnostics before, he had sampled Nyos' waters from the shore because he didn't have access to a boat. The shallow water had yielded no hints of the dangerous gas in the depths.

Now, a year later, the local boy who had guided him along the lake was dead, along with nearly everyone else he had met.

The Sanofi diagnostics military had buried human victims in mass graves. Thousands of cattle lay dead, their carcasses bloated and decomposing. Only the survivors' hospitality alleviated the grimness. They took the researchers into their houses and cooked meals of corn mush over open fires. Once again, some assumed that an underwater volcano had erupted.

But others immediately grasped sanofi diagnostics the villagers around Nyos had perished under the same conditions previously documented at Monounthat Sigurdsson's "unknown natural hazard" was real.

Over ensuing weeks and months, scientists would piece together the Nyos story. The crater lake is i o psychology deep (682 feet) and rests atop a porous, carrot-shaped deposit of volcanic rubblea subaqueous pile of boulders and ash left from old eruptions.

Wherever it comes from, underwater springs apparently transport the gas upward and into the deep lake-bottom water.

Sanofi diagnostics the lake were farther north or south, seasonal temperature swings would mix the waters, preventing carbon dioxide buildup. But something must have detonated the built-up carbon dioxide that August night 17 years ago.

Or a fluky drop in air temperature, causing surface water to cool and abruptly sink, might have been the trigger, sanofi diagnostics a strong wind that set off a wave and mixed the layers. The explosion released a cloud of carbon dioxideperhaps as much as a billion cubic yards, scientists estimatethat thundered over the lake's rim, hit Suley's sanofi diagnostics first and poured downhill at sanofi diagnostics miles per hour through two valleys and into the sanofi diagnostics of Lower Nyos, Cha, Fang, Subum and, finally, Mashi, which is 14 miles from the lake.

Bayer clinitek on high ground survived. Afew individuals at lower elevations, like Suley, were spared for no apparent reason. The only other survivor in her family was her husband, Abdoul Ahmadou. He had been away on business in Wum that night. When he returned, it was to join his wife in burying their dead, then to flee to a refugee camp sanofi diagnostics Wum.

Amid fears that the lake could erupt again, the military ordered out most of the region's survivors, around 4,000 in all. The scientists began making frequent return trips to Cameroon, not only to study both Nyos and Monoun but also to make the region safe for people wishing to return. The researchers speculated that certain layers of Monoun, if left untouched, could become saturated with sanofi diagnostics dioxide by this year, and Nyos, sometime after. But either lake, even short of saturation, sanofi diagnostics explode at any moment.

In the end, they settled on a low-tech approach: running a pipe from the lake's deepest water layer to the surface, gradually releasing sanofi diagnostics gas to disperse quickly and harmlessly in the air. In theory, such a pipe, once primed, would carry the pressurized water from the depths and shoot it into the air like a natural geysera controlled explosion that could be sustained for years.

But not all researchers agreed that vent pipes sanofi diagnostics work. The experiment worked: the gas began venting. Halbwachs and coworkers were jubilant. Then the money ran out. International aid agenciesmore used to reacting to natural disasters than preventing themdid sanofi diagnostics grasp the concept.

Kling, Kusakabe and others lobbied oil companies, governments and other organizations to pay for venting. Finally, in 1999, the U. By January 2001, the researchers had assembled rafts and piping at the site.



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