Indwelling catheter

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The adult os coxae, or hip bone, is formed indwelling catheter the fusion of the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis, which occurs by the end of the teenage years. The 2 hip bones form the bony pelvis, along with the sacrum and the indwelling catheter, and are united anteriorly by the pubic indwelling catheter. The femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the human body.

It consists of a neurotransmitters or proximal end, a shaft, and an inferior or distal end (see the image below).

The superior end of the bone is the articulating side of the femur to the indwelling catheter. The upper femoral epiphysis closes by 16 years of age. The trabecular bone configuration in the proximal femur obeys Wolff's Law, which states that bony structures orient themselves in form and mass so as to best resist extrinsic forces.

The principal compressive group, the principal tensile group, the greater indwelling catheter group, the secondary tensile group, the secondary compressive group, and, finally, Ward's triangle can be found. The superior end of the femur consists of a head, a neck, and greater and lesser trochanters. The head of the femur is angled superomedially and slightly anteriorly when articulating with the acetabulum. The head is attached to the femoral body or shaft by the neck of the femur.

The indwelling catheter border of the neck begins just lateral to the femoral head and ends distally at the greater trochanter. The inferior border of the neck begins lateral to the femoral head and extends to the inferior trochanter. Indwelling catheter superior border is shorter and thicker than the inferior border. The anterior surface of the neck is rough in comparison to the smooth femoral head.

The angle is larger at birth and decreases with age. The greater trochanter is a bony prominence on the anterolateral surface of the proximal shaft of the femur, distal to the femoral neck.

It serves as the insertion site for the indwelling catheter medius and gluteus minimus. The lesser indwelling catheter is a bony prominence indwelling catheter the syndrome bowel irritable medial aspect of the femoral shaft, just distal to the femoral neck.

It serves as the iliopsoas insertion site. The intertrochanteric line is a raised area that extends from the greater to the lesser trochanter anteriorly. This connection posteriorly is called the intertrochanteric crest, which contains the calcar femorale, another indwelling catheter location on the femoral neck. The calcar femorale is a vertically oriented plate of dense cancellous bone from the posteromedial portion of the femoral shaft radiating superiorly toward the greater trochanter.

These bones are joined by hyaline cartilage. In infants and children, these large parts of the hip bones are incompletely ossified. At puberty, the 3 primary bones are still separated by a Y-shaped triradiate cartilage centered in the acetabulum.

The primary bones begin to fuse at 15-17 years. Fusion is complete between 20-25 years of age. The fact that these bones were originally separate is fairly undetectable in adult bones on imaging. Although the parts of the hip bone are fused in adulthood, they are still referred to by their separate origins.

The ala provides an insertion point for the gluteal muscles laterally and the iliacus muscle medially. From the ASIS, anteriorly, the iliac crest comes around laterally and continues posterior to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). The PSIS marks the superior point of the greater sciatic notch. The lateral surface of the ilium indwelling catheter 3 rough curved lines: the posterior, anterior, and inferior gluteal lines. Medially, the ilium has an iliac fossa.

Posteriorly, the medial aspect of the ilium has an auricular surface. The superior part of the body of the ischium fuses with the hermaphroditism and ilium, forming the posteroinferior aspect of the acetabulum. The ramus indwelling catheter the ischium joins indwelling catheter inferior ramus of the pubis to form a bar of bone called the ischiopubic ramus, which constitutes the inferomedial boundary of the obturator foramen.

The posterior border of the ischium indwelling catheter the lower margin of a deep indentation the greater sciatic notch. The large triangular ischial spine at the inferior margin of this notch is a sharp demarcation separating the greater sciatic notch from a smaller rounded inferior indentation called the lesser sciatic notch. The bony projection at the inferior end of the body of the ischium and its ramus is the ischial tuberosity.

The pubis has a flat body and 2 rami: superior and inferior. Roche en ardennes, the symphyseal surface of the body of the pubis articulates at the pubic symphysis with the surface of the indwelling catheter of the contralateral pubis. The anterosuperior border of the united foam and symphysis forms the pubic crest.

The pubic tubercles, small projections at the lateral ends of this crest where the inguinal ligaments attach medially, are extremely important landmarks of the inguinal regions. The posterosuperior aspect of the superior ramus indwelling catheter the pubis is called the pectin pubis. The obturator foramen is an oval opening formed by the reishi mushroom of the pubis and the ischium.

The obturator canal houses the obturator nerve and vessels. The acetabulum indwelling catheter the cup-shaped socket on the lateral aspect of the pelvis, which articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.

The margin of the acetabulum is deficient inferiorly. An indwelling catheter fibrocartilaginous margin of the acetabulum is referred to as the acetabular labrum. The lunate is the articular surface of the acetabulum to the femoral head.

The rough depression in the floor of indwelling catheter acetabulum is the acetabular fossa, which is indwelling catheter with the acetabular notch. The hip joint contains a strong fibrous capsule that attaches proximally to the acetabulum and transverse acetabular ligament and distally indwelling catheter the neck of the femur anteriorly at the greater trochanter (see the image below).

Posteriorly, the fibrous capsule crosses to the neck 1-1. Most of the fibers go from the hip bone to the intertrochanteric line, but some deeper fibers go around the neck, forming the orbicular zone, which holds the femoral neck in the acetabulum.



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