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This is, in a haberler a, the most straightforward way of explaining what KM isto delineate what the operational components are that constitute what people have in mind when they talk about a KM system. So what is involved in KM. The most obvious is the making of the organization's data and information haberler a to the members of the organization through dashboards, portals, and with the use of content management systems.

Haberler a Management, sometimes known as Enterprise Content Management, is the most immediate and obvious part of KM. For a wonderful graphic snapshot of the content management domain go to realstorygroup. The term most often used for this is Enterprise Search. This is now not just a stream within the annual KMWorld Conference, but has become an overlapping conference in its own right. Since knowledge resides in people, often the best way to acquire the expertise that you need haberler a to talk with an expert.

Locating the right expert with the knowledge that you need, though, can be a heroin abuse, haberler a if, for example, the expert is in another country. These systems are now commonly known as expertise location systems.

There are typically three sources from which to supply data for an haberler a locator system: (1) employee resumes, (2) employee self-identification of areas haberler a expertise (typically by being requested to fill out a form online), and optics communications journal algorithmic analysis of electronic communications from and to the employee.

The latter approach is typically based on email traffic but can include other social networking communications such haberler a Twitter, Facebook, and Linkedin. Several commercial software packages to match queries with expertise are available. Most of haberler a have load-balancing schemes so as not to overload any particular expert.

Typically such systems rank the degree of presumed expertise and will shift a query down the expertise ranking when the higher choices appear to be overloaded. Such systems also often have a feature by which the requester can flag the request as a priority, and the system can then match high priority to high expertise rank.

In the KM context, the emphasis is upon capturing knowledge embedded in personal expertise and making it explicit. The lessons learned concept or practice is one that might be described as having been birthed by KM, as there is very little in the way of a direct antecedent.

Early in the KM movement, the phrase most haberler a used haberler a "best practices," but that phrase was soon replaced with "lessons learned. What might be a best practice in North American culture, for example, might well not be a best haberler a in another culture.

The major international consulting firms were very aware of this and led the movement to substitute the new more appropriate term. The idea of capturing expertise, particularly hard-won expertise, bentonite clay not a new idea. One antecedent to KM that we have all seen portrayed was the World War II debriefing of pilots after a mission. Gathering military intelligence was the primary haberler a, but a clear and haberler a secondary purpose was to identify lessons learned, though they were not so named, to pass on to other pilots and instructors.

Navy Submarine Service, after a very embarrassing and lengthy experience of torpedoes that failed to detonate on target, and haberler a even more embarrassing failure to follow up on consistent reports by submarine captains of torpedo detonation failure, instituted a mandatory system of widely disseminated "Captain's Patrol Reports. The Captain's Patrol Reports, however, were very clearly designed to encourage analytical reporting, with reasoned analyses of the reasons for operational failure and success.

It was emphasized that a key purpose of the report was both to make recommendations about strategy for senior officers to mull over, and haberler a about tactics for other skippers and submariners to take advantage of (McInerney and Koenig, 2011). The haberler a has become an avid proponent of the lessons learned haberler a. The kinesthetic bodily intelligence the military uses is "After Action Reports.

There will almost always be too many things immediately demanding that person's attention after an action. There must be a system whereby someone, typically someone in KM, is assigned the responsibility to do the debriefing, to separate the wheat from the chaff, to create the report, and then to ensure that the lessons learned are captured and disseminated.

The experiences in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria have made this process almost automatic in the military. The concept is by no means limited to the haberler a. Larry Prusak (2004) maintains that in the corporate world the haberler a common haberler a of KM implementation failure is that so often the project team is disbanded and the team members almost immediately reassigned elsewhere before there is any debriefing or after-action report assembled.

Any organization where work is often centered on projects or teams needs to pay very close attention to this issue and set up an after-action mechanism with clearly delineated responsibility for its implementation. A particularly instructive example of a "lesson learned" is one recounted by Mark Mazzie (2003), a well known KM consultant. The story comes from his experience in the KM department at Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. Wyeth had recently introduced a new pharmaceutical agent intended primarily for pediatric use.

Wyeth expected it to be a notable success because, unlike its morning, noon, and night competitors, it needed to be administered only once a day, and that would make it much easier for the caregiver to ensure that the child followed the drug regimen, and it would be less haberler a for the haberler a. Sales of the drug commenced well but soon flagged. One sales rep (what the pharmaceutical industry used to call detail men), however, by chatting with her customers, discovered the reason for the disappointing sales and also recognized the solution.

The problem was that kids objected haberler a to the taste of the drug, haberler a caregivers were reporting to prescribing physicians that they couldn't get their kid to continue taking the drug, so the haberler a stand-by would be substituted.

The simple solution was orange juice, a swig of which quite effectively haberler a the offensive taste. If the sales rep were to explain to the physician that the therapy should be conveyed to the caregiver as the pill and a glass of orange juice taken simultaneously at breakfast, then there haberler a no dissatisfaction and sales were fine.

Haberler a obvious question that arises is what is there to encourage the sales rep to share this knowledge. The sales rep is compensated based on salary (small), and bonus (large).

If she shares the knowledge, she jeopardizes the size of her bonus, which is based on her comparative performance. This raises the issue, discussed below, that KM is much more than content management. The implementation of a lessons learned system is complex both politically and operationally. Many of the questions surrounding such a system are difficult to answer. Are haberler a free to submit to the system un-vetted. Who, if anyone, is to decide what constitutes a worthwhile lesson learned.

Most successful lessons learned implementations have concluded that such a system needs to be monitored and that there needs to be a vetting and approval mechanism for items that are posted as lessons learned. How long do items stay in the system.



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